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THE IDEOLOGICAL SOURCES OF TOTALITARIANISM IN PLATO’S PHILOSOPHY

Автор: Sveta on .

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Koshovyj I. Idejni dzherela totalitaryzmu u filosofii' Platona. Visnyk Kyi'vs'kogo nacional'nogo torgovel'no-ekonomichnogo universytetu. 2020. № 1. S. 54-69.

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DOI: http://doi.org/10.31617/visnik.knute.2020(129)05

UDC 321.64:141.131
 

KOSHOVYI Ihor,
Postgraduate student at the Department of Philosophy and Social Sciences
Kyiv National University of Trade and Economics
19, Kyoto str., Kyiv, 02156, Ukraine 

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ORCID: https://orcid.org/0000-0002-6792-0261

THE IDEOLOGICAL SOURCES OF TOTALITARIANISM IN PLATO’S PHILOSOPHY

BackgroundIf freedom in the hierarchy of human values and priorities does not occupy the highest place, and in order to maintain public order, people are ready to exchange their freedom for security, then the possibility of forming a specific system of stateand political power regulating all public and private spheres of human life is significantly increasing. The reasons for the establishment oftotalitarian regimemay be the radical changes in socio-political life and the responsesof a society to such changes related tothe processes of alienation and maladaptation.
The analysis of recent researchesand publications has shown that despite of individual scientific achievements in the studiesof totalitarianism as a stateand political authority and there is the need to analyze Plato’s philosophy on the subject of the availability of ideological sources, the "starting point" of totalitarian political regime.
The aim of the article is to identify and analyze the ideological origins of totalitarianism in Plato’s philosophy on the example of the dialogue "The State".
Materials and methods. Analysis and synthesis, abstraction and generalization, comparative, dialectic, hermeneutic, historico-philosophical, hypothetico-deductive and other methods have been used in the study.
Results. The ideological sources of totalitarianism in Plato’sphilosophy are identifiedand analyzed on the example of the dialogue "The State".The main featuresof the system of totalitarian ideology of  Plato’sutopian state, which focus on the idea of the common good, public welfare and happiness as the goal of state policy,are highlighted. At the same time, it is argued that the idea of a "powerful hand" and paternalism meets the deep existential demands of a man, characterized by loneliness, anxiety, escapefrom freedom and pursuit of happiness.
Conclusion. It is proved that in the system of Plato’s "ideal" state the basic values of the totalitarian state are justified, as well as the basic features of the totalitarian political system are highlighted. Plato’s ideas for aformation of a perfect state were not out of touch  from the objective socio-historic reality, and apparently they were theresponse to the changes in the socio-political relations of that time, which were accompanied by wars.
The prospects for further researchesareidentification and analysis of the main mechanisms of values erosion in modern society, the convergence of totalitarian political re­gime and democratic societies in order to prevent such processes; historical and philosophical analysis of classical totalitarian regimes of the twentieth century; definition of the basic prerequisites for the moral justification of  totalitarian system in modern society.
Keywords: totalitarianism, ideal state, closedsociety, moral virtue, justice, common good, liberty, happiness.

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