Doctor of Economic Sciences, Professor at the Department of Economic Theory and Competition Policy
of the Kyiv National University of Trade and Economics
Kyoto str., 19, Kyiv, 02156, Ukraine
ECONOMIC THEORY IN THE NEW METHODOLOGICAL DISCUSSIONBackground. Development of economic theory at the beginning of the XXI century is determined by the increasing tendency towards its paradigm differentiation, and such diversity makes it impossible to search for a single generalized paradigm that could reflect the whole range of modern scientific and economic knowledge. As a result, there is an expansion of the range of scientific researches on the basis of their mutual exchange and paradigmatic advancement in the interdisciplinary sphere. At the same time, the economic theory demonstrates contradictory concepts and models and is characterized by the existence of a number of problems in substantiating and predicting the long-term trajectory of economic development. In view of this, attention to the problems of methodological awareness, the conceptual and systematic study of various scientific fields and the formation of a new understanding of economic processes on this basis are growing.
Analysis of recent researches and publications made it possible to conclude that, despite the existence of certain scientific developments, theoretical economic science is at the stage of active transformation of its subject-research field. At the same time, those conceptual achievements, which have become the most striking demonstration of achievements in the economic theory of recent decades, have yet to be tested in the future.
The aim of the article is to analyze and generalize theoretical and methodological transformations in the conceptual field of economic theory of the XXI century.
Materials and methods. The study uses a set of methods and approaches that allowed the system-conceptual unity of the research to be realized, namely analysis, synthesis, dialectic, systemic and comparative.
Results. Economic theory is characterized by the coexistence of various trends and theoretical concepts with different methodological platforms. The studies are deepened by generalization of basic models with the simultaneous penetration of the theory into new areas of research. A distinctive tendency for modern economic theory is the differentiation and narrow specialization of theoretical research. As a result, the generalization of theoretical and empirical developments becomes more complex every time. In the world and domestic economic theory there is a deployment of the trend to expand the range of problems of the methodology of scientific knowledge and further expansion of the problem matrix of methodological analytics. A significant number of new, non-traditional problems of economic methodology is gradually integrating in it and, at the same time, the scope of economic methodology is expanding, covering a wide range of not only methodological but also philosophical problems of economic theory.
Ensuring the human-centric orientation of economic development determines the need for proper development of the system of economic and theoretical knowledge, starting with the outgoing philosophical and methodological level of economic theory and completing with its normative plane and the implementation of economic policy. There is an expansion of functional determinants of the economy, the inclusion of a wide range of social factors of development of the human person in its structure and the formation of new system integrity on the basis of it. The functional field of the economy in its broad context is the space of socio-economic transformations and the formation of an economic dimension that overcomes the narrow boundaries of production and distribution and includes the whole range of systemic factors of mutual influence associated with the affirmation of human.
Conclusion. In contrast to the existing publications, the scientific hypothesis is formulated that the development of economic theory occurs through constant methodlogical renewal, which is largely determined by its inability to explain the real phenomena of economic life, the emergence of new ideas, sustainable accumulation of knowledge, intellectual and meaningful updating of established concepts and formation of new scientific schools. A promising direction for further scientific research of the vector of economic theory development is the definition of ways of synthesis of different approaches in order to overcome the methodological crisis and to enter a new trajectory of knowledge of socio-economic transformations.
Keywords: economic theory, methodology, paradigmatic basis, human centrism.
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