Doctor of Economics, Professor, rector
of the Kyiv National University of Trade and Economics
Kyoto str., 19, Kyiv, 02156, Ukraine
Doctor of Economics, Professor, Professor at the Management Department
of the Kyiv National University of Trade and Economics
Kyoto str., 19, Kyiv, 02156, Ukraine
Candidate of technical sciences, Associate professor, Associate professor at the Department of engineering and technical disciplines
of the Kyiv National University of Trade and Economics
Kyoto str., 19, Kyiv, 02156, Ukraine
IDENTIFICATION OF THE NATION BRANDING CONTENTBackground. The positive perception and high level of recognition of the nation brand in the world is one of the key prerequisites for the successful release of national goods and services to foreign markets, attracting foreign direct investment, high-skilled labor and tourists to the country. Problematic aspects of forming an attractive nation brand, raising its level of recognition and improving the perception of the broader public necessitate a clear identification of the content of nation branding.
The analysis of recent researches and publications showed that despite the existence of certain scientific achievements, there is still no economic and mathematical description of the content of nation branding with clear and understandable identification of its constituent elements and / or factors of influence on formation or development, aimed at optimizing the general results of branding. Until now, the distinctions and interrelation between nation branding and other semantically related concepts have not been clearly and comprehensively defined.
The aim of the article is to identify the content of nation branding. To achieve it the following tasks are set: to systematize scientific approaches to the definition of "branding"; to specify the stage of transformation changes of the branding concept; to define the essence of the concept of "identification of the content of nation branding"; conduct a comparative analysis and identify the relationship between the concepts of " country brand ", "country branding", "territoral brand", "territorial branding", "state brand ", "state branding", "nation brand", "nation branding"; to substantiate the economic-mathematical description of the identification of content of nation branding; build a model for optimizing the results of nation branding; to analyze the dynamics of changes in the value of the nation brand of Ukraine against the backdrop of changes in the value of nation brands of other countries during 2013–2018.
Materials and methods. In the course of the research, scientific developments of well-known scientists, data from the consulting company Brand Finance on changes in the value of nation brands from different countries, annual reports "Global 500" were used. The methods of systematization, economic-mathematical modeling, comparative analysis, synthesis are applied.
Results. The systematization of scientific approaches to the definition of the term "branding" has made it possible to establish that today scholars interpret the essence of this notion in different ways, using five scientific approaches: process; technological; instrumental; marketing; interdisciplinary.
It has been determined that from 2005 to the present time, the branding concept is undergoing new transformational changes related to the development of creative multifaceted branding, which involves widespread use of neuromarketing technologies in the process of branding and absolute unrestricted access to the use of any innovations and digital technologies for formation of associative perception of any sphere of activity, any object or system taking into account eco-, socio-, cyber, etc. priorities in the local, regional, national, international or even global space.
It is proposed to identify the content of the nation branding by identifying the content (that is, the constituent elements and the probable interrelationship between them) and/or setting the targets and restrictions of nation branding.
The data of the comparative analysis of the concepts of "country brand", "country branding", "territorial brand", "territorial branding", "state brand", "state branding", "nation brand", "nation branding" allowed to identify the interconnection between them and it is reasonable to assert that these concepts are not identical, although they have intersection points and can be considered as constituent elements of nation branding or as factors of influence on it or its result.
An economical-mathematical description of the identification of content of nation branding was made and a model of optimization of its results was made taking into account the probability of negative influence of information externalities. It is determined that the main objective of realization of the strategy of nation branding can objectively be a target function, aimed at maximizing the value of a nation brand in the international arena, whose achievements may be curtailed due to lack of resources and / or absence or underdevelopment of competencies necessary for the correct choice and effective implementation of the strategy of nation branding in general and the formation of individual components of the nation brand.
The opinion about the strong negative impact of armed conflicts on the territory of the country, on the value of its nation brand and the results of nation branding is confirmed. It is established that the position of the value of the nation brand of Ukraine in the international arena, as well as its companies, is far from the leaders, USA and China. It is substantiated that even in the near future, provided the right choice and competent implementation of the nation branding strategy, Ukraine is fully capable of improving its position and brand status in the international arena.
Conclusion. Unlike existing publications, for the first time an economics and mathematical description of the identification of content of nation branding was made and a model of optimization of its results was created, which will help to improve the informational and instrumental provision of the process of implementation of the nation branding strategy. The application of this model in the process of analyzing the dynamics of the change in the value of the nation brand of Ukraine allowed to identify the main reasons for reducing this value by more than 2.8 times over the years 2013–2015, namely: significant impairment or decrease in the value of a number of Ukrainian corporate brands; reducing the cost of tourism brand potential; increase in the influence of negative informational externalities, etc.
The results of research in the future can be used in researches devoted to aspects of strategic management of branding, development and improvement of scientific approaches to selection and strategic control over the implementation of the nation branding strategy, etc.
Keywords: nation branding, nation brand, territory brand, territorial branding, place branding, destination branding, state brand, state branding, country brand, country branding, brand value, content identification, model, international environment, information externalities.
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