Doctor of Philosophy, Professor,
Professor of Drohobych State Pedagogical University
st. Ivan Franko, 24, Drohobych, 82100, Ukraine
FROM CRITICS OF METAPHYSICS TO ROLE RESTORATION OF METAPHYSICS AS CRITICSBackground. The dubious reputation that metaphysics has in modern intellectual space does not correspond to its significance as a mental practice, since in the process of thinking it is impossible to avoid some primary principles, some data of consciousness, and therefore metaphysics can be detected in any work of thought. It is substantiated that philosophy as work with phenomena of consciousness is inevitably metaphysical.
Analysis of recent research and publications.The conducted review analytics confirms the renewal of attention to metaphysics as a kind of mode of work of the mind.
The aim of the article. The article reveals and justifies such a mode of work of metaphysics, which eliminates the opposition of dogmatism and criticism, and the critical method does not appear in the journalistic-polemical aspect, but as a philosophical and logical work.
Materials and methods. In the work with texts the method of phenomenological descriptors was used, which follows the subject itself and allows refraining from appraisal and ideological judgments, methods of historical and philosophical comparativism, dialectical-logical analysis were used when working with concepts that imply sophisticated distinction and mutual transformation
Results. It is shown that the main preconception against metaphysics is the lack of a reliable basis for metaphysical reflections, which is subject to an expeditious review. The assertion of some reality, not recorded "physically" and which has the character of a problematized reality, which is manifested in a specific movement backward in the rejection of the view from the very subject to the conditions of its ability, that is, at the beginning, is significant, which makes metaphysics critical. Just as work with consciousness (spirit) philosophy appears as metaphysics, as directed to the initial beginning of everything – as ontology, as methodologically centered on the method of its accomplishment – as logic and epistemology, but inevitably in all its discoveries it is painted anthropologically and therefore is existential.
Conclusion. As something special, Platonic or Aristotelian-New European, metaphysics should be discontinued in order to reveal a metaphysical view that is capable of switching the mode of its work: metaphysics is not possible on the side of objects, but on the side of the primary presence of that having radical primacy. Metaphysics as an intellectual practice is aimed at expanding the range of human experience. Classical New European metaphysics appears to be an essential discourse and is constructed as a theoretical system. There are grounds to talk about the existential metaphysics of the individual, which is realized not in rational reasoning, but in an existential position, while revealing a new possibility of metaphysics as a critical-analytic inquiry about their own beginnings. Such metaphysics differs from the anti-modern European one and reveals the possibilities of the mind that is sensitive to the otherness - such a mind is sometimes called communicative and post-metaphysical, but this "post" cannot fail to take into account the ability to recognize the difference in the order of the world developed by metaphysics. Philosophical discipline has sense to sharpen the taste to the excellent, to the impossibility of imposing their habits on everything else. It is no coincidence that the comprehension of the otherness has become so important for the thinkers of the twentieth century, and this coincides with the restoration of interest in metaphysics.
Keywords: metaphysics, critics, authenticity, essential and existential discourses.
- Bіlogur, V. E. (2014). Metafіzichnі zasadi sportu jak optimumu buttja [Metaphysical foundations of sport as the optimum of being]. Vіsnik HNU іmenі V. N. Karazіna –Bulletin of the V.N. Karazin Kharkiv National University, 1093. 103-109. Serіja "Fіlosofіja. Fіlosofs’kі peripetії" [inUkrainian].
- Kant, І. (2000). Kritika chistogo rozumu [Critic of the mind ]. Kyi’v: Junіvers [in Ukrainian].
- Rahmajlov, E. V. (2014). Metafіzika antropoteїzmu v genealogії fashists’koї mіfologії nadljudini (na materіalah gajdegerіvs’kogo analіzu nіcsheans’koї etiki) [Metaphysics of Anthropo-Teismo in the genealogy of fascist mythology of the superman (on the materials of the guider’s analysis of Nishcheana’s ethics)]. Granі– Granі,8 (112) serpen’. 52-57[in Ukrainian].
- Berdjaev, N. A. (1995). Opyt jeshatologicheskoj metafiziki. Tvorchestvo i obektivacija. Carstvo Duha i carstvo kesarja [The experience of eschalotagic metaphysics. Creativity and objectification. Kingdom of the Spirit and the kingdom of Caesar]. Moscow: Respublika[in Russian].
- Kassirer,Je. (1997).Zhizn’ i uchenie Kanta [The life and teachings of Kant]. SPb.: Universitetskaja kniga[in Russian].
- McKinney,T. (2018).As One Does’: Understanding Heidegger’s Account of das Man.European Journal of Philosophy,26 (1).430-448[in English].
- Withy,K. (2013). The Strategic Unity of Heidegger’s The Fundamental Concepts of Metaphysics. The Southern Journal of Philosophy. (Vols.5),2. 161-178 [in English].
- Gusev, V. І. (2016). Metafіzika jak fіlosofs’ka nauka [Metaphysics as a philosophical science]. Naukovі zapiski NaUKMA –NaUKMA scientific records. (Vols. 180). Fіlosofіjata relіgієznavstvo. (pp.3-11) [in Ukrainian].
- Dingli, S. M. (2005).On Thinking and the World: John McDowell’s Mind and World. Aldershot: Ashgate. [in English].
- Ivanov,D. V. (2017).Kritika metafiziki v kontekste diskussij o realizme i antirealizme[Criticism of metaphysics in the context of the discussion of realism and anti-realism]Filosofskij zhurnal.(Vols. 10), 1. 35-47[in Russian].
- Manusakis,Dzh (2014). Bog posle metafiziki. Bogoslovskaja jestetika[God after metaphysics. Theological Aesthetics]. Kyiv: DUH I LITERA.
- Marsel’, G. (2013). O smelosti v metafizike [About courage in metaphysics]. Sbornik statej– Digest of articles. SPb.: Nauka[in Russian].
- Livanios,V. (2018). Dispositionality and Symmetry Structures. Metaphysica, 19 (2). 201-217 [inEnglish].
- Petrushenko, V. (2014). Nachala metafiziki (obzor istorii i problematiki) [The beginnings of metaphysics (a review of history and issues)].Dnepropetrovsk: FLP Serednjak T. K[in Russian].
- Macdonald,Cynthia(2005). Varieties of things: foundations of contemporary metaphysics. Oxford : Blackwell[in English].
- A Companion to the Latin medieval commentaries on Aristotle’s Metaphysics. Leiden; Boston, 2014. 695 p.[in English].
- Conti,A. D. (2014). Giles of Rome’s Questions on the Metaphysics. A Companion to the Latin medieval commentaries on Aristotle’s Metaphysics. Leiden; Boston[in English].
- Karpov, K. V. (2017).Jegidij Rimskij o granicah metafiziki kak nauki Filosofskij zhurnal (Vols.10), 1. 23-34[in Russian].
- Terlec’kij, V. (2017). Suchasnі diskusії pro nazvu aristotelevogo tvoru, vіdomogo nam jak "Metafіzika"1 [Contemporary discussions about the name of Aristotle work, known as "Metaphysics" for us.]1. Sententiae. 36:2. p. 50-65 [inUkrainian].
- Laks, M. (2016). Metafіzika : suchasnij vstupnij kurs [Metaphysics: A modern introductory course].Kyiv: Duh і Lіtera[in Ukrainian].
- Chernomorec, Ju. Neobhodimost’ ukrainskoj radikal’noj ortodoksii [The need for Ukrainian radical orthodoxy]. Retrievedfromhttp://risu.org.ua/ru/index/expert_thought/open_theme/44887[in Russian].
- Chornomorec’, Ju. Kritika neopatristiki otcja Georgіja Florovs’kogo u radikal’nіj teologії Pandelіsa Kalaіdzіdіsa: propushhenij shans zrozumіti poperednikіv. Retrievedfrom http://theology.in.ua/ua/bp/theologia/contemporary/45303 [in Russian].
- Mamardashvili,M. K. (1991).Problema cheloveka v filosofii. O chelovecheskom v cheloveke[The problem of man in philosophy. About the human in man].Moscow: Politizdat [inRussian].