Doctor of Sciences (Philosophy), Professor, Department of the Philosophy and Social Sciences of Kyiv National University of Trade and Economics
COMPETENCY MODELS IN HIGHER EDUCATION AND BUSINESS: FOREIGN EXPERIENCE
Background. In our time, there is a transition from qualification to competence in higher education and business, which is characterized by increased attention to the study of foreign experience in the use of competency models. Competency models as a method of human resource management contribute to the attraction, development and detention of labor in various organizations.
The aim of the article is to study the essence of the category "competent model" and to define this concept in foreign scientific literature, as well as the practice of implementing this method in higher education and business.
Materials and methods. The article uses the recommendations of the European Parliament and the Council of the EU, the Law of Ukraine on Higher Education, the scientific works of well-known foreign researchers. In the process of scientific research, the following research methods have been used: abstraction, logical, historical, comparison, analysis and synthesis.
Results. The concept of "competence" is the subject of research of various disciplines. For example, pedagogy aims to raise competencies to form an independent and responsible activity. The European Parliament and the Council (EC) formulated in their Recommendations eight core competences: communication in native and foreign languages, science and technology, learning for the sake of knowledge, social and civic skills, initiative and practicality, awareness and expression in the field of culture.
Professional, methodological, activity and social competence can be considered necessary for the activity of higher educational establishments.
Common is the division of competences into general (key) and functional (specific) that are related to a specific function in the enterprise or higher education institution and include knowledge, skills, values, skills and behavior that lead to the success of a particular position or group positions according to a certain direction of activity. Competency models have become widespread in business, higher education and other organizations and have become the key to recruiting, hiring, developing and securing workers, as well as an integral part of staffing.
Specific characteristics of competency models are interpersonal skills, honesty, professionalism, initiative, adaptability and flexibility, reliability and realism, lifelong learning. The competent iceberg model is an important issue for research. The renowned American Society for the Management of Humanitarian Resources considers competence as a cluster of interrelated qualities, including knowledge, skills and abilities that contribute to more efficient work execution. The modern theory and practice of management also uses the architecture of competencies, in which 12-15 key elements are essential for the management of this organization.
Based on the use of competent approaches and models in Bulgaria, an appropriate system has been created that includes the National Council for the Evaluation of Qualifications as a permanent body.
Conclusion. Competence combines knowledge, skills, skills and relationships that are the preconditions for success, which can be studied and mastered, primarily due to the fulfillment of certain tasks and requirements.
At the same time, the competent model as a certain set of characteristics advocates the method of management of humanitarian resources, which should be considered in the context of the activities of the entire organization and consistent with the goals of the higher educational institution or enterprise.
Formation of the competent model includes management features, the use of methods of analysis of work, taking into account the requirements of future professionals, the definition of competencies as general and special, the use of organizational development methods, the use of competency model in the work with personnel. Such a model systematizes competence, makes it possible to use them for planning and reflection, carrying out certain comparisons, motivating employees, improving the efficiency of activities, etc.
Competency models are used within the framework of human resources management and are constructed as mutually supplemented integrated systems. They represent competencies that describe the behavior that is needed to develop an individual and achieve better results in different areas of activity and learning.
Keywords:business, higher education, competence, competency, competence model.
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