Doctor of Sciences (History), Professor of Economic Theory and Competition Policy Deaprtment of Kyiv National University of Trade and Economics
INTERNAL MIGRATION IN UKRAINE IN 2014–2016 YEARS
Background. Aggressive actions of the Russian Federation related to the annexation of the Crimea and the beginning of the armed conflict in the territory of Donbass became the main factors that determine the nature of migration during the years of 2014–2016. Loss of control over the industry in Donbass, rising military expenditures associated with increasing the combat capability of the Armed Forces of Ukraine, and the loss of some foreign markets adversely affected the economy of Ukraine. Living standards fell in such circumstances. Move of a large number of the working population of Donbass led to some increase in labor supply in the labor market.
The aim of the article is to study the main factors that determined the terms and nature of internal labor migration in Ukraine during the given period, migration trends and specific concentration of migrant workers in the region.
Materials and methods. The study used methods of statistical analysis, comparative, institutional and cultural (cultural values) ones. The study is based on the analysis of statistical material and some sociological studies.
Results. The main factors which defined conditions and character of internal migration in Ukraine during 2014–2016 years were researched. The main internal migration ways in conditions of increased competition on the labor market, military actions in Donbas and economic crisis were defined. The impact of internal labor migration on the state policy in the sphere of employment of the population was showed. Changes in demand for skilled professionals were reflected. During 2014–2016 years the direction of labor migration and its distance in Ukraine were defined both by the financial capacity to settle in a new place and hope for the realization of their potential outside of their permanent residence. For part of the migrants the main motive of departure was to avoid involvement in the fighting posing the threat to life and health of the family and made impossible or significantly hindered economic activity. For others it was the desire to work as there was no work in particular areas (usually in rural ones), and to improve remuneration or employment conditions.
Pendular labor migration of the Ukrainian population, which lived on both sides near the demarcation line in the ATO, was driven by the need to find work or keep working place depending on the fact weather it was on the territory controlled by Ukraine or not. The desire to survive in the difficult conditions of armed conflict requires regular travel in search of work.
Conclusion. Comparative analysis of statistical data regarding the number of people who moved between regions of Ukraine allows to state that regions with concentration of powerful industrial enterprises as well as the state capital have become the most attractive for labor migrants, they provide a greater chance to get well paid work. In turn, relatively more labor migrants have left the regions mainly focused on agricultural production.
Keywords: social policy, migration policy, migration, employment, pendular labour migration.
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