Doctor of Sciences (Philosophy), Professor, Department of the Philosophy and Social Sciences of Kyiv National University of Trade and Economics
PROTESTANTISM AS A RESULT OF THE EUROPEAN REFORMATION
Background. Reformation, whose 500th anniversary will be in October, was a powerful church and religious movement in Europe, whose influence has spread onto various spheres of life in many countries. The result of this process was the emergence of Protestantism as a new Christian denomination that needs investigation of spiritual influence of the Renaissance, characteristics of the Catholic Church, as well as economic and political situation.
Analysis of recent research and publications showed that despite the existence of specific research remains a problem of holistic study of the Reformation using German, English and Italian literature, as Germany, England and Italy were once closely associated with the processes of the Reformation.
The aim of the article is to explore the cultural, religious, economic and political causes of the Protestant Reformation, the emergence of Protestantism as a new Christian denomination and its current role in the development of culture and education, and the spread of Protestant churches and sects.
Materials and methods. The study used historical and philosophical, comparative and logical methods as well as the principles of consistency and comprehensiveness.
Results. It has been shown that Reformation was caused by various reasons and developed under the influence of humanistic ideas of the Renaissance. Revolutionary influence of the Protestant movement was caused by the problems of the Catholic Church and the papacy, which caused widespread discontent and protests of the population. The effects of the Reformation are not limited with the church area and cover different realms – politics, economics, culture, education and art. Protestantism contributed to their development. The Reformation was preparation for the Enlightenment, it caused a distinction of religious and secular, separation of church and state. The Reformation, which affected all spheres of life, became a turning point in European culture and prepared the way for the Enlightenment.
The Reformation initiated by Martin Luther led to the emergence of a new influential Protestant Christian denomination, Church democratization and establishment of the Protestant communities in many countries.
Conclusion. Protestant Reformation was caused by the crisis of the Catholic Church and the papacy, and other factors. Revolutionizing social, spiritual and revolutionary life contributed to the development of culture, education and science, renewal of various spheres, including church relations and distinction of religious and secular and separation of church and state. Protestant remains influential Christian denomination in many countries.
Keywords: Protestantism, Reformation, Catholic Church, humanism, Christianity, Lutheranism, Calvinism and Anglicanism.