PhD in Philosophy, Associate Professor, Doctoral Student, Humanitarian Security Department National Institute for Strategic Studies
URBAN PROSPECTS AND FREEDOM OF MODERN MAN
Background. City is an extremely complex and variegated habitat of modern man that throughout history has played a leading role and gradually formed a type of a "city dweller". Since the late nineteenth century, the processes of transformation of the city are urbanization, which do not only indicate a cultural change, and create a new type of settlement, new social relations, way of life and thinking in rapidly growing population of cities. In recent decades, new forms and quality of the city are one reason for the growth of self-identity crisis that raises the urgency of marginalization in urban conditions to the next level.
Analysis of recent research and publications showed that despite the existence of certain scientific achievements, important scientific and practical problem for relationships and mechanisms of manifestations of marginality trends in the modern urban environment remains unresolved.
The aim of the article is to outline significant relationship between freedom and autonomy as key features of modern metropolis citizen lifestyles and an alarming rate of marginalization arising.
Material and methods. The study used socio-cultural and socio-philosophical approach, method of socio-philosophical analysis, anthropological analysis method, the method of phenomenological reduction and others.
Results. The phenomenon of marginality has been seen as identity duplicity – necessary stage in the transition from local identity of "stranger" to the identity of the new "included" to the environment. The city has emerged as the ideal-typological model of community life that has passed from the industrial into post-industrial phase of development. The very ideology of a city dweller acquires the characteristics of temporality, situational, its foundation are individual views, not general rules. Volatility is a new social pattern. So the concept of marginality in such conditions is qualitatively new, different from traditional interpretations of the content and is quite logical in such conditions.
Self-idectifition model that was inherent in traditional forms of culture ceases to be viable and recedes into the background. In a more complex and differentiated urban space becomes impossible to play traditional stereotypes of social interaction, regulatory public opinion loses its authority, leaving only formal guarantees backed by public law. The range of values and life scenarios of a person gradually expands and finally city dweller gets freedom of choice, taking responsibility for this decision and defines a continuous individualized human existence.
That freedom is not a right but a need for an independent autonomous decision making under urbanism puts man in qualitatively new conditions for self-determination, within which the principle of individualization of society is central. As a result, by the need to streamline the infinite urban multiplicity identity problem and the problem of marginality as a way of life of the individual appear.
Conclusion. For successful self-identification in social and cultural environment that surrounds it, you need to meet three key human needs: a sense of community, structure and meaningfulness. But in modern city today the concept of human life course shifts in opposite directions. New urban reality content generates marginal "from inside" – mobile identity, ready to change spatial localization, as well as to change social groups, own interests, making the rate of mass mobility of people on a planetary scale. It asserts dominance in the modern era of "nomadic" culture as a source of power and success guarantee becomes volatility, no barriers and elusiveness.
Keywords: identity, city, urbanism, marginality, mobility, personality.
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